Host species

Experimental infection was demonstrated in the following animal species: Chickens, Ducks, Turkeys, Pigeons, Birds of prey, Rabbit, Dog, Wild boar, Cat, Pigs, Cattle, Goose, Ostriches

Duration of clinical signs

Clinical signs observed

Reported Case Fatality


Duration of clinical signs: Meta-analysis accounting for censoring

Kaplan-Meier curves were fit to the data,in order to estimate confidence intervals (CI) and interquartile ranges (IQ) that explicitly take into account the data censoring issue (lack of information about true maximum when experiments ended while the agent was still detectable). The results are the survival curves shown below, first with confidence intervals (parametric assumption), and then with interquartile ranges (non-parametric). Further below you will find a table with the exact calculated CI and IQ.

Kaplan-Meier curves with parametric Confidence Intervals

Kaplan-Meier curves with Inter-Quartile Intervals

Duration of clinical signs: Calculated confidence interval and interquartile ranges accounting for censoring

LCL and UCL stand for the lower and upper control limit of a 95% confidence interval accounting for censoring (lack of information about true maximum when experiments ended while the agent was still detectable).

N.groups is the number of animal groups from which experimental infection data was available.

Case-fatality in further details

The table below details the number of groups (N.groups) for which experimental infection data was available, and gives a summary of the fatality observed within these experimentally infected groups.

For each combination of animal species and, when relevant, agent subtype, three rows of information are available:

  1. The within group fatality, summarized for all animal groups in which the reference explicitly gave information about whether deaths were observed (or animals were euthanised due to advanced clinical signs). This therefore can include groups in which no animals died or were euthanised, as long as this information was explicitily observed and reported. The within group percentage displayed in the table is the median of all observations available (one observation = % dead within one animal group experimentally infected and followed).

  2. the within group fatality only for groups in which mortality was observed. That is, when disease was observed to cause deathes, what was the percentage fatality within animal groups.

  3. the number of animal groups for which no fatality information is available (the reference did not report deaths, but it was not possible to determine whether no deaths were observed, or this information was simply not reported).


In the left panel you can find information about the entire systematic literature review. The specific references for this agent, and used in this section of the story map are listed below.